In this guide we are going to install MariaDB 10.7 development version, but first what is MariaDB?
MariaDB Server is one of the most popular open-source relational databases. It’s made by the original developers of MySQL and guaranteed to stay open source. It is part of most cloud offerings and the default in most Linux distributions.
It is built upon the values of performance, stability, and openness, and MariaDB Foundation ensures contributions will be accepted on technical merit. Recent new functionality includes advanced clustering with Galera Cluster 4, compatibility features with Oracle Database and Temporal Data Tables, allowing one to query the data as it stood at any point in the past.
You need to have Ubuntu 20.04 server with non-root administrative privileges and a firewall configured with UFW. Check out this for initial server setup guide for Ubuntu 20.04.
Installing MariaDB 10.7
1. Run system updates
Begin by updating your apt repository with the following command on your terminal
$ sudo apt update && apt upgrade -y
2. Install MariaDB dependencies
After updates are complete you can then install the MariaDB server by adding the apt repository to our system and also add GPG key.
$ sudo apt install software-properties-common dirmngr apt-transport-https
Reading package lists... Done Building dependency tree Reading state information... Done dirmngr is already the newest version (2.2.19-3ubuntu2.1). dirmngr set to manually installed. software-properties-common is already the newest version (0.99.9.8). software-properties-common set to manually installed. apt-transport-https is already the newest version (2.0.6). 0 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.
Add GPG keys
$ sudo apt-key adv --fetch-keys 'https://mariadb.org/mariadb_release_signing_key.asc'
Sample output will look like this;
$ Executing: /tmp/apt-key-gpghome.9NqByLiyl1/gpg.1.sh --fetch-keys https://mariadb.org/mariadb_release_signing_key.asc gpg: requesting key from 'https://mariadb.org/mariadb_release_signing_key.asc' gpg: key F1656F24C74CD1D8: "MariaDB Signing Key <[email protected]>" not changed gpg: Total number processed: 1 gpg: unchanged: 1
Lastly, add the apt repository to our system.
$ sudo add-apt-repository 'deb [arch=amd64,arm64,ppc64el,s390x] https://mariadb.mirror.liquidtelecom.com/repo/10.7/ubuntu focal main'
NB: Change mirror location to reflect where you are downloading from
Run system updates again
$ sudo apt update
We can check to see if the repository has been added.
$ apt policy mariadb-server
mariadb-server: Installed: (none) Candidate: 1:10.7.1+maria~focal Version table: 1:10.7.1+maria~focal 500 500 https://mariadb.mirror.liquidtelecom.com/repo/10.7/ubuntu focal/main amd64 Packages 500 https://mariadb.mirror.liquidtelecom.com/repo/10.7/ubuntu focal/main ppc64el Packages 500 https://mariadb.mirror.liquidtelecom.com/repo/10.7/ubuntu focal/main arm64 Packages 500 https://mariadb.mirror.liquidtelecom.com/repo/10.7/ubuntu focal/main s390x Packages 1:10.3.32-0ubuntu0.20.04.1 500 500 http://mirrors.digitalocean.com/ubuntu focal-updates/universe amd64 Packages 500 http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu focal-security/universe amd64 Packages 1:10.3.22-1ubuntu1 500 500 http://mirrors.digitalocean.com/ubuntu focal/universe amd64 Packages
3. Install Mariadb 10.7 on Ubuntu 20.04
Install MariaDB with the following command
$ sudo apt install mariadb-server mariadb-client
The output will look like this
The following additional packages will be installed: galera-4 libcgi-fast-perl libcgi-pm-perl libconfig-inifiles-perl libdbd-mariadb-perl libdbi-perl libencode-locale-perl libfcgi-perl libhtml-parser-perl libhtml-tagset-perl libhtml-template-perl libhttp-date-perl libhttp-message-perl libio-html-perl liblwp-mediatypes-perl libmariadb3 libmysqlclient21 libpmem1 libterm-readkey-perl libtimedate-perl liburi-perl mariadb-client-10.7 mariadb-client-core-10.7 mariadb-common mariadb-server-10.7 mariadb-server-core-10.7 mysql-common socat Suggested packages: libclone-perl libmldbm-perl libnet-daemon-perl libsql-statement-perl libdata-dump-perl libipc-sharedcache-perl libwww-perl mailx mariadb-test The following NEW packages will be installed: galera-4 libcgi-fast-perl libcgi-pm-perl libconfig-inifiles-perl libdbd-mariadb-perl libdbi-perl libencode-locale-perl libfcgi-perl libhtml-parser-perl libhtml-tagset-perl libhtml-template-perl libhttp-date-perl libhttp-message-perl libio-html-perl liblwp-mediatypes-perl libmariadb3 libmysqlclient21 libpmem1 libterm-readkey-perl libtimedate-perl liburi-perl mariadb-client mariadb-client-10.7 mariadb-client-core-10.7 mariadb-common mariadb-server mariadb-server-10.7 mariadb-server-core-10.7 mysql-common socat 0 upgraded, 30 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded. Need to get 29.4 MB of archives. After this operation, 230 MB of additional disk space will be used. Do you want to continue? [Y/n]
3. Initial MariaDB configuration
The installation process will not ask you to set a password and this leaves MariaDB insecure. We will use a script that the MariaDB-server package provides strict access to the server and remove unused accounts. Read more about the security script here.
To ensure that our database is secure we need to run the mysql_secure_installation command to remove all remote root login, remove anonymous users, etc.
$ sudo mysql_secure_installation
The following sample output will be displayed.
NOTE: RUNNING ALL PARTS OF THIS SCRIPT IS RECOMMENDED FOR ALL MariaDB SERVERS IN PRODUCTION USE! PLEASE READ EACH STEP CAREFULLY! In order to log into MariaDB to secure it, we'll need the current password for the root user. If you've just installed MariaDB, and haven't set the root password yet, you should just press enter here. Enter current password for root (enter for none): OK, successfully used password, moving on... Setting the root password or using the unix_socket ensures that nobody can log into the MariaDB root user without the proper authorisation. You already have your root account protected, so you can safely answer 'n'. Switch to unix_socket authentication [Y/n] n ... skipping. You already have your root account protected, so you can safely answer 'n'. Change the root password? [Y/n] n ... skipping. By default, a MariaDB installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone to log into MariaDB without having to have a user account created for them. This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation go a bit smoother. You should remove them before moving into a production environment. Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] y ... Success! Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from 'localhost'. This ensures that someone cannot guess at the root password from the network. Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] y ... Success! By default, MariaDB comes with a database named 'test' that anyone can access. This is also intended only for testing, and should be removed before moving into a production environment. Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] y - Dropping test database... ... Success! - Removing privileges on test database... ... Success! Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes made so far will take effect immediately. Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] y ... Success! Cleaning up... All done! If you've completed all of the above steps, your MariaDB installation should now be secure. Thanks for using MariaDB!
Next is to enable MariaDB database
$ sudo systemctl enable mariadb
Start MariaDB database
$ sudo systemctl start mariadb
Check the status of the MariaDB database
$ sudo systemctl status mariadb
● mariadb.service - MariaDB 10.7.1 database server Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/mariadb.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled) Drop-In: /etc/systemd/system/mariadb.service.d └─migrated-from-my.cnf-settings.conf Active: active (running) since Sat 2022-01-29 09:46:56 UTC; 3min 34s ago Docs: man:mariadbd(8) https://mariadb.com/kb/en/library/systemd/ Main PID: 3884 (mariadbd) Status: "Taking your SQL requests now..." Tasks: 9 (limit: 1131) Memory: 74.1M CGroup: /system.slice/mariadb.service └─3884 /usr/sbin/mariadbd Jan 29 09:47:00 ubuntu /etc/mysql/debian-start: sys Jan 29 09:47:00 ubuntu /etc/mysql/debian-start: Phase 6/7: Checking and upgrading tables Jan 29 09:47:00 ubuntu /etc/mysql/debian-start: Processing databases Jan 29 09:47:00 ubuntu /etc/mysql/debian-start: information_schema Jan 29 09:47:00 ubuntu /etc/mysql/debian-start: performance_schema Jan 29 09:47:00 ubuntu /etc/mysql/debian-start: sys Jan 29 09:47:00 ubuntu /etc/mysql/debian-start: sys.sys_config OK Jan 29 09:47:00 ubuntu /etc/mysql/debian-start: Phase 7/7: Running 'FLUSH PRIVILEGES' Jan 29 09:47:00 ubuntu /etc/mysql/debian-start: OK Jan 29 09:47:00 ubuntu /etc/mysql/debian-start: Triggering myisam-recover for all MyISAM tables and aria-recover for all> lines 1-24/24 (END)
Test MariaDB 10.7
To test MariaDB we can create a database. Login to MariaDB console with the following command.
$ mysql -u root -p
Welcome to the MariaDB monitor. Commands end with ; or \g. Your MariaDB connection id is 51 Server version: 10.7.1-MariaDB-1:10.7.1+maria~focal mariadb.org binary distribution Copyright (c) 2000, 2018, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others. Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement. MariaDB [(none)]> show databases; +--------------------+ | Database | +--------------------+ | information_schema | | mysql | | performance_schema | | sys | +--------------------+ 4 rows in set (0.000 sec) MariaDB [(none)]>
We have learned how to install MariaDB on Ubuntu 21.04 server and secured it using the
mysql_secure_installation script. You can now practice running SQL queries to learn more. I hope you enjoyed it and you have learned something new.