In this guide we are going to install MariaDB 10 development version, but first what is MariaDB?
MariaDB Server is one of the most popular open-source relational databases. It’s made by the original developers of MySQL and guaranteed to stay open source. It is part of most cloud offerings and the default in most Linux distributions.
It is built upon the values of performance, stability, and openness, and MariaDB Foundation ensures contributions will be accepted on technical merit. Recent new functionality includes advanced clustering with Galera Cluster 4, compatibility features with Oracle Database and Temporal Data Tables, allowing one to query the data as it stood at any point in the past.
You need to have Ubuntu 22.04 server with non-root administrative privileges and a firewall configured with UFW. Check out this for initial server setup guide for Ubuntu 20.04.
Installing MariaDB 10
1. Run system updates
Begin by updating your apt repository with the following command on your terminal
$ sudo apt update && apt upgrade -y
2. Install Mariadb 10 on Ubuntu 22.04
Install MariaDB with the following command
$ sudo apt install mariadb-server mariadb-client
The output will look like this
The following additional packages will be installed: galera-4 libcgi-fast-perl libcgi-pm-perl libclone-perl libconfig-inifiles-perl libdaxctl1 libdbd-mysql-perl libdbi-perl libencode-locale-perl libfcgi-bin libfcgi-perl libfcgi0ldbl libhtml-parser-perl libhtml-tagset-perl libhtml-template-perl libhttp-date-perl libhttp-message-perl libio-html-perl liblwp-mediatypes-perl libmariadb3 libmysqlclient21 libndctl6 libpmem1 libsnappy1v5 libtimedate-perl liburi-perl liburing2 mariadb-client-10.6 mariadb-client-core-10.6 mariadb-common mariadb-server-10.6 mariadb-server-core-10.6 mysql-common socat Suggested packages: libmldbm-perl libnet-daemon-perl libsql-statement-perl libdata-dump-perl libipc-sharedcache-perl libbusiness-isbn-perl libwww-perl mailx mariadb-test The following NEW packages will be installed: galera-4 libcgi-fast-perl libcgi-pm-perl libclone-perl libconfig-inifiles-perl libdaxctl1 libdbd-mysql-perl libdbi-perl libencode-locale-perl libfcgi-bin libfcgi-perl libfcgi0ldbl libhtml-parser-perl libhtml-tagset-perl libhtml-template-perl libhttp-date-perl libhttp-message-perl libio-html-perl liblwp-mediatypes-perl libmariadb3 libmysqlclient21 libndctl6 libpmem1 libsnappy1v5 libtimedate-perl liburi-perl liburing2 mariadb-client mariadb-client-10.6 mariadb-client-core-10.6 mariadb-common mariadb-server mariadb-server-10.6 mariadb-server-core-10.6 mysql-common socat 0 upgraded, 36 newly installed, 0 to remove and 7 not upgraded. Need to get 16.8 MB of archives. After this operation, 104 MB of additional disk space will be used. Do you want to continue? [Y/n] y
You check the version of installed MariaDB with the following command:
$ mariadb --version mariadb Ver 15.1 Distrib 10.6.7-MariaDB, for debian-linux-gnu (x86_64) using EditLine wrapper
3. Initial MariaDB configuration
The installation process will not ask you to set a password and this leaves MariaDB insecure. We will use a script that the MariaDB-server package provides strict access to the server and remove unused accounts. Read more about the security script here.
To ensure that our database is secure we need to run the mysql_secure_installation command to remove all remote root login, remove anonymous users, etc.
$ sudo mysql_secure_installation
The following sample output will be displayed.
NOTE: RUNNING ALL PARTS OF THIS SCRIPT IS RECOMMENDED FOR ALL MariaDB SERVERS IN PRODUCTION USE! PLEASE READ EACH STEP CAREFULLY! In order to log into MariaDB to secure it, we'll need the current password for the root user. If you've just installed MariaDB, and haven't set the root password yet, you should just press enter here. Enter current password for root (enter for none): OK, successfully used password, moving on... Setting the root password or using the unix_socket ensures that nobody can log into the MariaDB root user without the proper authorisation. You already have your root account protected, so you can safely answer 'n'. Switch to unix_socket authentication [Y/n] n ... skipping. You already have your root account protected, so you can safely answer 'n'. Change the root password? [Y/n] n ... skipping. By default, a MariaDB installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone to log into MariaDB without having to have a user account created for them. This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation go a bit smoother. You should remove them before moving into a production environment. Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] y ... Success! Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from 'localhost'. This ensures that someone cannot guess at the root password from the network. Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] y ... Success! By default, MariaDB comes with a database named 'test' that anyone can access. This is also intended only for testing, and should be removed before moving into a production environment. Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] y - Dropping test database... ... Success! - Removing privileges on test database... ... Success! Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes made so far will take effect immediately. Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] y ... Success! Cleaning up... All done! If you've completed all of the above steps, your MariaDB installation should now be secure. Thanks for using MariaDB!
Next is to enable MariaDB database
$ sudo systemctl enable mariadb
Start MariaDB database
$ sudo systemctl start mariadb
Check the status of the MariaDB database
$ sudo systemctl status mariadb
● mariadb.service - MariaDB 10.6.7 database server Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/mariadb.service; enabled; vendor prese> Active: active (running) since Wed 2022-07-06 13:03:40 UTC; 8min ago Docs: man:mariadbd(8) https://mariadb.com/kb/en/library/systemd/ Main PID: 2941 (mariadbd) Status: "Taking your SQL requests now..." Tasks: 8 (limit: 1033) Memory: 57.1M CPU: 336ms CGroup: /system.slice/mariadb.service └─2941 /usr/sbin/mariadbd
Test MariaDB 10
To test MariaDB we can create a database. Login to MariaDB console with the following command.
$ mysql -u root -p
Welcome to the MariaDB monitor. Commands end with ; or \g. Your MariaDB connection id is 37 Server version: 10.6.7-MariaDB-2ubuntu1 Ubuntu 22.04 Copyright (c) 2000, 2018, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others. Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement. MariaDB [(none)]>
We have learned how to install MariaDB on Ubuntu 22.04 server and secured it using the
mysql_secure_installation script. You can now practice running SQL queries to learn more. I hope you enjoyed it and you have learned something new.